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Locations and Operational Equipment

The Control Towers

ENAV is responsible for the air navigation services at 39 Italian civil airports where, from the Control Towers, it manages the take-offs, landings and final approaches to the airport, the departure phase from the same airport and the ground movements of aircraft. On the ports in which minor volumes of traffic are registered, ENAV provides the sole Flight Information Service (AFIS).

The latter does not foresee any "authorization" for take off and landing; pilots in fact only receive weather information and information relative to any eventual other traffic present on the airport from ENAV operators.
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The Area Control Centres

The Area Control Centres Outside the management of airport traffic, ENAV ensures assistance to navigation to all the aircraft en route, whether they are destined to over-fly the country or to land at a national airport. This traffic is managed by four Area Control Centres (ACCs) of Brindisi, Milano, Padova and Roma; each has jurisdiction on a well-defined air space. The ACC is divided into sectors, each of these controls a sub portion of airspace in away as to assure uninterrupted assistance to the aircraft en route.

After take off the Control Tower hands off the flight to ACC and transfers the responsibility; the ACC has the task of guaranteeing the right distance (separation) both vertically and horizontally from other aircraft en route and to ensure air navigation according to flow and safety criteria. In proximity of arrival airports, the ACC transfers the flight back to the Control tower of the arrival airport; or, if we are dealing with an over-flight, transfers it to another adjacent ACC.
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The Radar

ENAV guarantees the safety over Italian skies by using over 60 primary and secondary radars for the surveillance of air traffic en route, in approach, not to mention taxiing on the runways.

The number of radar permits to assure the necessary redundancy and at least one double coverage over the greater part of the national airspace.
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The Navaids

There are hundreds of navaids (VOR, DME, etc.), spread out over the whole territory, which permit pilots to orient themselves in the air space or to land following only the instruments (instrument procedures). The Instrument Landing Systems installed by ENAV in the greater Italian airports allow precision landings up to 75 meters of visibility on the runway.
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The Aeronautical Communication Equipment

The communication between pilots and controllers, not to mention the transmission of data necessary to navigation and to air traffic control (AIS, NOTAM), pass through a complex system of telecommunications designed and managed by ENAV.

Aeronautical telecommunications between fixed points are ensured by satellite systems, data transmission networks, telephone and telegraphic systems; the mobile aeronautical system is guaranteed by ground/air/ground transmission centres.
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